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IAAMB tracks the laws and legislative activities of each state and works with members to make them friendlier to animal massage and bodyworkers.

ANIMAL MASSAGE LAWS BY STATE

State

Allowed

Vet Only

Vet Only or Direct Supervision

Gray Area

Pending Request

Legislature Pending

Comments

Alabama

 

 

 X

 

 

 

ALLOWED WITH DIRECT VET SUPERVISION
"Animal massage by a massage therapist under the direction of a licensed veterinarian" Current Interpretation: According to the AVMA August 2008 state law, massage is allowed under direct supervision of a veterinarian. Specific wording included in the veterinary state practice act.
Previous Interpretation: Must be first licensed as a human qualified massage therapist: 500 hours prior to 1998, 650 hours after December 31, 1997 but before January 1, 2002. In addition:(10) To permit animal massage by a massage therapist under the direction of prescription of a licensed veterinarian, the applicant must graduate from a nationally approved program and complete a minimum of 100 hours of postgraduate training and education in animal anatomy, pathology, and physiology for the type of animal on which the therapist will perform therapeutic massage.

Current veterinary laws of practice:
"a.To diagnose, treat, correct, change, relieve, or prevent animal disease, deformity, defect, injury or other physical or mental condition; including the prescription or administration of any drug, medicine, biologic, apparatus, application, anesthesia, or other therapeutic or diagnostic substance or technique on any animal including but not limited to acupuncture, dentistry, animal psychology, animal chiropractic, theriogenology, surgery, including cosmetic surgery, any manual, mechanical, biological, or chemical procedure for testing for pregnancy or for correcting sterility or infertility, or to render service or recommendations with regard to any of the above."

Alaska

 

 

X

 

 

 

ALLOWED WITH DIRECT VET SUPERVISION
No specific wording in state board vet practice act Two bills have been attempted. HB 372 was a pro choice that failed. SB 321 was similar to the AVMA Model, but failed.
An animal massage therapist did write to the board and was told only a vet or vet tech directly under the supervision may provide massage. However again, no specific wording is in the vet practice act.

Arizona

 

X

 

 

 

 

NOT ALLOWED; VET ONLY
Broad wording in the vet practice act
"Manipulation and "all other branches or specialties of veterinary medicine"
Update on law: From the Arizona Alliance for Animal Owners' Rights: According to the Arizona Revised Statute covering the definition of veterinary medicine, any non-vet who administers any method, practice, or manipulation for any type of animal condition who is paid for this service is practicing veterinary medicine with-out a license.
A bill restoring owner's rights lost by one vote recently. The state alliance is working on resubmitting another bill.
Current veterinary laws of practice :
." A person shall be regarded as practicing veterinary medicine, surgery and dentistry within the meaning of this chapter who, within this state:
 Prescribes or administers any drug, medicine, treatment, method or practice, performs any operation or manipulation, or applies any apparatus or appliance for the cure, amelioration, correction or modification of any animal condition, disease, deformity, defect, wound or injury for hire, fee, compensation or reward that is directly or indirectly promised, offered, expected, received or accepted."

Arkansas

 

X

 

 

 

 

NOT ALLOWED; VET ONLY
No specific wording in state vet practice act however interpretation was received from the vet board
The vet board feels that massage provides "relief". Relief falls under the definition of the practice of veterinary medicine.

California

X

 

 

 

 

 

ALLOWED 
No specific wording in state board vet practice act
There are no current regulations on animal massage. However, musculoskeletal manipulation is not allowed by layperson.
Bill Introduced: A bill regarding training and guidelines for equine body workers AB 2042 was introduced in 1999. It passed the first 3 hearings but was not presented for the final hearing.

Colorado

 

 

 

 

 

ALLOWED WITH CERTIFICATION FROM APPROVED SCHOOL
Specific wording in state board vet practice act to be effective January 2010"
Specific wording in state vet practice act to be effective January 2010
August 2008: Animal massage – any person may perform massage on an animal if the person does not prescribe drugs, perform surgery, or diagnose medical conditions and effective 1/1/2010, the person has earned a degree or certificate in animal massage from an approved school
HB 07-1295 PASSED January 2008
A BILL FOR AN ACT
101 CONCERNING AN EXEMPTION FROM THE " COLORADO VETERINARY
102 PRACTICE ACT" FOR TRAINED ANIMAL MASSAGE
103 PRACTITIONERS.

Bill Summary
Exempts from the "Colorado Veterinary Practice Act" persons who perform massage on animals, so long as such persons:
(1) Have earned a degree or certificate in animal massage from a state-approved or accredited school; and
(2) Do not prescribe drugs, perform surgery, or diagnose
medical conditions.
Be it enacted by the General Assembly of the State of Colorado:

SECTION 1. 12-64-104 (1), Colorado Revised Statutes, is
amended BY THE ADDITION OF A NEW PARAGRAPH to read:

12-64-104. License requirements and exceptions - definitions.

(1) No person may practice veterinary medicine in this state who is not a licensed veterinarian. No person may practice artificial insemination or ova transplantation of cattle or other animal species in this state except in accordance with section 12-64-105 (9) (c). This article shall not be construed to prohibit:
(o) (I) ANY PERSON FROM PERFORMING MASSAGE ON AN ANIMAL
IF:
(A) THE PERSON DOES NOT PRESCRIBE DRUGS, PERFORM SURGERY,
OR DIAGNOSE MEDICAL CONDITIONS; AND
(B) EFFECTIVE JANUARY 1, 2010, THE PERSON HAS EARNED A
DEGREE OR CERTIFICATE IN ANIMAL MASSAGE FROM A SCHOOL APPROVED BY THE PRIVATE OCCUPATIONAL SCHOOL DIVISION OF THE COLORADO DEPARTMENT OF HIGHER EDUCATION UNDER ARTICLE 59 OF THIS TITLE, AN OUT-OF-STATE SCHOOL OFFERING AN ANIMAL MASSAGE PROGRAM WITH AN ACCREDITATION RECOGNIZED BY THE UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION, OR A SCHOOL THAT IS EXEMPT UNDER SECTION 12-59-104.
(II) AS USED IN THIS PARAGRAPH (o):
(A) "MASSAGE" MEANS A METHOD OF TREATING THE BODY FOR REMEDIAL OR HYGIENIC PURPOSES THROUGH TECHNIQUES THAT INCLUDE,
WITHOUT LIMITATION, RUBBING, STROKING, KNEADING, OR TAPPING WITH THE HAND OR AN INSTRUMENT OR BOTH. THESE TECHNIQUES MAY BE APPLIED WITH OR WITHOUT THE AID OF A MASSAGE DEVICE THAT MIMICS THE ACTIONS POSSIBLE USING HUMAN HANDS.
 (B) "MASSAGE" DOES NOT INCLUDE CHIROPRACTIC OR
ACUPUNCTURE, AS DEFINED IN SECTION 12-33-102, OR THOSE ACTS OF PHYSICAL THERAPY THAT FALL OUTSIDE THE SCOPE OF MASSAGE.

 (2) The provisions of this act shall apply to treatment of animals occurring on or after the applicable effective date of this act.

Connecticut

X

 

 

 

 

Myotherapy Bill in Legislature: House Bill No. 6683. PASSED.
"This bill only applied to myofascial trigger point therapy on animals, and not any other type of massage. The bill allows for practice of this type of massage if the person had the stipulated education and experience prior to the bill going into effect.

ALLOWED
Specific Wording in the state board vet practice act
House Bill No. 6683
Public Act No. 03-277
AN ACT CONCERNING MYOFASCIAL TRIGGER POINT THERAPY ON ANIMALS.
Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives in General Assembly convened:
Section 1. Section 20-197 of the general statutes is repealed and the following is substituted in lieu thereof (Effective October 1, 2003):
No person shall practice veterinary medicine, surgery or dentistry until he has obtained a license as provided in section 20-199. A person shall be construed to practice veterinary medicine, surgery or dentistry, within the meaning of this chapter, who holds himself out as being able to diagnose, administer biologics for, treat, operate or prescribe for any animal or bird disease, pain, injury, deformity or physical condition, or who either offers or undertakes, by any means or methods, to diagnose, administer biologics for, treat, operate or prescribe for any animal or bird disease, pain, injury, deformity or physical condition. The euthanizing of animals in accordance with applicable state and federal drug laws by the Connecticut Humane Society , [and] the floating of teeth in horses by persons experienced in that practice and the performance of myofascial trigger point therapy by persons experienced in that practice shall not be deemed to be the practice of veterinary medicine. For the purposes of this section, "floating teeth" means using hand-held rasps to reduce or eliminate sharp or uneven edges on a horse's upper and lower molars to avoid injury to the tongue and cheeks and to improve chewing food, but does not include treating decay, tumors or extracting teeth. For purposes of this section, "myofascial trigger point therapy" means the use of specific palpation, compression, stretching and corrective exercise for promoting optimum athleticism, and "persons experienced in that practice" means a person who, prior to the effective date of this section, has attended a minimum of two hundred hours of classroom, lecture and hands-on practice in myofascial trigger point therapy, including animal musculoskeletal anatomy and biomechanics, theory and application of animal myofascial trigger point techniques, factors that habituate a presenting condition and corrective exercise.
Approved July 9, 2003

Delaware

 

 

X

 

 

 

ALLOWED WITH DIRECT VET SUPERVISION
Exemption wording in the vet practice act:
"Supports activities under the direct supervision of a licensed veterinarian"
"Massage on animals falls under the jurisdiction of the Board of Veterinary Medicine in DE. Vet practice act available on www.professionallicensing.state.de.us. Click on Vet Med and then on
Delaware Code. Massage is not mentioned. Refer to definition of practice of veterinary medicine. No plans to address massage for animals at this time."

Vet Board Response 2001:   In a previous letter from the board, they wrote:
"To the extent that equine massage falls within the definition of "practice of veterinary medicine" in 24 Del. C. §3302 (6), a practitioner of equine massage must be a licensed veterinarian, as defined in 24 Del. C. §3302 (8), unless an exception listed in 24 Del. C. §3303 applies."

§3303 License requirements and exceptions. (10), No person may practice veterinary medicine in the State who is not a licensed veterinarian or the holder of a valid temporary permit issued by the Board. This chapter shall not be construed to prohibit:
(10) Any person from performing support activities under the direct supervision, as determined by regulations adopted by the Board, of a Delaware-licensed veterinarian. The support activities shall not include diagnosing, prescribing, inducing anesthesia, performing surgery or other support activities as defined in regulations adopted by the Board.

§3302 (6) "Practice of veterinary medicine" shall mean:
a. To diagnose, treat, correct, change, relieve or prevent animal disease, deformity, defect, injury or other physical or mental conditions, including the prescription or administration of any drug, medicine, biologic, apparatus, application, anesthetic or other therapeutic or diagnostic substance or technique, for testing for pregnancy or for correcting sterility or infertility, or to render advice

Florida

X

 

 

 

 

 

ALLOWED 
Law passed in 2006 allowing massage

Georgia

X

 

 

 

ALLOWED
Specific wording in state vet practice act to allow animal massage
This article shall not be construed to prohibit:
(17) A person performing soft tissue animal massage or other forms of soft tissue animal manipulation…"

Hawaii

 

 

X

 

 

 

ALLOWED WITH VET SUPERVISION
No specific wording in the state vet practice act however state board interpretation offered guidelines
Vet Board Response:
"The veterinary medicine licensing regulations do not specifically address equine massage, The definition to the "Practice of Veterinary Medicine" means the diagnosis of treatment for the prevention, cure, or relief of, or giving of advice concerning, a disease, pain, injury, deformity, or other physical condition of an animal, or a characteristic of an animal for cosmetic or utility purposes. It includes medical, surgical and dental care of animals. This definition sufficiently broad to provide only licensed veterinarians the ability to practice on animals , including massage. However, the veterinary licensing regulation allows for those under the supervision of a licensed veterinarian to be able to provide limited services on animals including massage therapy."

Idaho

X

 

 

 

 

 

ALLOWED
Broad wording in state vet practice act however state board interpretation offers guidelines:
Allied health professional participating in procedure within his/her scope of practice and under direct supervision of actively licensed veterinarian 
Response from Vet Board: In a letter from Sheila Jenson, MA for the Idaho State Board of Veterinary Medicine dated, July 28,2003:
"Massage is not a licensed profession in the state of Idaho; therefore, equine massage is allowed as long as the individual does not diagnose, prescribe, manipulate or adjust."

Illinois

 

 

 

 X

 

 

PREVIOUSLY ALLOWED: CURRENTLY BEING DISCUSSED
Some specific wording is now offered in the state practice act. Wording includes this list as the practice of veterinary medicine:
Complementary, alternative, or integrative veterinary medical procedures including: Chiropractic, Physical therapy, Animal acupuncture, Animal acutherapy, Animal acupressure, Veterinary homeopathy, Animal psychology, Artificial insemination, Dental, Veterinary nutraceutical therapy, Veterinary phytotherapy
Some specific wording is now offered in the state practice act. Wording includes this list as the practice of veterinary medicine:
Complementary, alternative, or integrative veterinary medical procedures including:
Chiropractic
Physical therapy
Animal acupuncture
Animal acutherapy
Animal acupressure
Veterinary homeopathy
Animal psychology
Artificial insemination
Dental
Veterinary nutraceutical therapy
Veterinary phytotherapy
As of January 1, 2004, with the legislative indoctrination of the Veterinary Medicine and Surgical Act of 2004, Senate Bill 386, all practitioners dealing with animals who are not licensed professional veterinarians must present their respective clients with a Disclosure Statement, prior to performing any practices.

Veterinary Laws of Practice Amended:
House Amendment No. 3
Synopsis As Introduced
Amends the Regulatory Sunset Act. Extends the repeal of the Veterinary Medicine and Surgery Practice Act of 1994 to January 1, 2014. Effective immediately.

Bill SB0386
Replaces the exemption for an owner of a companion animal caring or treating his or her animal with an exemption for an owner of an animal, or an agent of the owner acting with the owner's approval, in caring for, training, or treating an animal belonging to the owner, so long as that individual or agent does not represent himself or herself as a veterinarian or use any title associated with the practice of veterinary medicine or surgery or diagnose, prescribe drugs, or perform surgery. Adds an exemption for an individual providing equine dentistry services requested by a veterinarian licensed to practice in this State, an owner, or an owner's agent.
Replaces everything after the enacting clause. Amends the Veterinary Medicine and Surgery Practice Act of 1994. Changes the short title of the Act to the Veterinary Medicine and Surgery Practice Act of 2004. Makes changes to provisions concerning definitions, exemptions from the application of the Act, unlawful practice, qualifications, applicants for licensure from non-approved veterinary schools, temporary permits, expiration and renewal of a license, and disciplinary actions. Changes references to veterinary technicians to certified veterinary technicians. Changes references to approved programs of veterinary medicine and surgery to accredited college of veterinary medicine. Adds failing to report a case of suspected aggravated cruelty, torture, or animal fighting to the grounds for discipline under the Act. Provides that nothing in the Act exempts a licensee from the mandatory reporting requirements regarding suspected acts of aggravated cruelty, torture, and animal fighting. Makes other changes. Amends various other Acts to change references to the Veterinary Medicine and Surgery Practice Act of 1994 to the Veterinary Medicine and Surgery Practice Act of 2004. Amends the Regulatory Sunset Act to provide for the repeal of the Veterinary Medicine and Surgery Practice Act of 2004 on January 1, 2014. Effective December 31, 2003.
Exemptions to the Practice of Veterinary Medicine:
§115/4 (7): "Members or other licensed professions or any other individuals when called for consultation and assistance by a veterinarian licensed in the State of Illinois and who act under the supervision, direction and control of the veterinarian, as further defined by rule of the Department."

Indiana

X

 

 

 

 

 

CHECK WITH STATE BOARD: CHANGED

Broad wording in state vet practice now includes:
"Complimentary or alternative therapy" as the practice of veterinary medicine

Vet Board Response: In a letter dated March 27, 2000, Cindy Vaught wrote:
"…the statues or rules do not specifically pertain to the practice of equine massage."

Current veterinary laws of practice:
"Practice of veterinary medicine" means:
(3) diagnosing a specific disease or injury, or identifying and describing a disease process of animals, or performing any procedure for the diagnosis of pregnancy, sterility, or infertility upon animals;
(4) prescribing a drug, medicine, appliance or application, or treatment of whatever nature for the prevention, cure, or relief of bodily injury or disease of animals;
(5) performing a surgical or dental operation upon an animal; or
(6) administering a drug, medicine, appliance, application, or treatment of whatever nature for the prevention, cure, or relief of a wound, fracture, or bodily injury or disease of animals, except where such drug, medicine, appliance, application, or treatment is administered at the direction and under the direct supervision of a veterinarian licensed under this chapter.
"Veterinary medicine" includes veterinary surgery, obstetrics, dentistry, acupuncture, and all other branches or specialties of veterinary medicine.

Iowa

 

 

 

 

X

 

NO RESPONSE FROM VET BOARD: ACUPRESSURE NOT ALLOWED
Broad wording in state vet practice now includes:
"animal physical therapy, veterinary acupuncture and acupressure, animal chiropractic, and all other branches or specialties of veterinary medicine" as the practice of veterinary medicine

Kansas

 

 

 X

 

 

 

ALLOWED WITH VET SUPERVISION
No specific wording in state vet practice act in regards to massage however this particular wording is included in the act:
"Independent contractor under direct or indirect supervision of veterinarian as specified by regulation"

Kentucky

 

 

 

 
X

 

Current Laws of Practice:
(5) "Practice of veterinary medicine" means:
(a) To diagnose, treat, correct, change, relieve, or prevent: animal disease, deformity, defect, injury, or other physical or mental conditions, including the prescription or administration of any drug, medicine, biologic, apparatus, application, anesthetic, or other therapeutic or diagnostic substance or technique, and the use of any manual or mechanical procedure for testing for pregnancy, or for correcting sterility or infertility, or to render advice or recommendation with regard to any of the above;
(b) To engage in veterinary surgery, obstetrics, embryo transfer, dentistry, acupuncture, manipulation, and all other branches or specialties of veterinary medicine and the prescribing, administering, or dispensing of drugs and medications for veterinary purposes, in accordance with the applicable federal statutes and regulations governing controlled prescription and legend drugs;

GRAY AREA
Broad wording in state vet practice now includes:
"All other branches or specialties of veterinary medicine"

Louisiana

 

 

X

 

 

Current veterinary laws of practice:
"Practice of veterinary medicine" means: to diagnose, treat, correct, change, relieve, or prevent animal disease, deformity, defect, injury, or other physical or mental conditions; including the prescription or administration of any drug, medicine, biologic apparatus, application, anesthetic, or other therapeutic or diagnostic substance or technique, and the use of any manual or mechanical procedure for testing pregnancy or for correcting sterility, or infertility, or to render advice recommendation with regard to any of the above.

ALLOWED WITH DIRECT VET SUPERVISION
Broad wording in state vet practice now includes:
 "All other branches of veterinary medicine

Maine

 

X

 

 

 

Current veterinary laws of practice:
A. The diagnosis, treatment, correction, change, relief or prevention of animal disease, deformity, defect, injury or other physical or mental condition, including the prescription or administration of a drug, medicine, biologic, apparatus, application, anesthetic or other imaging, therapeutic or diagnostic technique or nutritional substance or technique on, for or to any animal, including, but not limited to, acupuncture, dentistry, homeopathic or chiropractic procedures, physical or massage therapy, surgery including cosmetic surgery, implanting of microchips or similar devices or any manual, mechanical, biological or chemical procedure used for pregnancy testing or correcting sterility or infertility;  [1997, c. 246, §4 (rpr).]
 
Failed Bill: HP1145 : An Act Regarding Equine Massage Therapy. Attempted in 1999.
 
Prior Vet Board Response: (March 17, 2000): E-mail from Anne Head:
"Currently there is no license category for an individual who is trained to perform equine massage. Proposed legislature to create such a license category was introduced in the Maine State Legislature in the 118th Legislature but was not passed. For your information, the Board of Veterinary Medicine opposed the legislature because equine massage is viewed by the board as a component of veterinary practice, and thus, can be practiced only by licensed veterinarians or by unlicensed individuals working under the direct supervision of a licensed veterinarian."

NOT ALLOWED
Specific wording in state vet practice act includes:
 "Physical or massage therapy"

Maryland

X

 

 

 

 

There is an ongoing case in MD after and EBW who is also state certified in human massage was issued a cease and desist. The C and D came from the MD Chiropractic Board who threatened to revoke her human license if she did not stop working on animals stating animal massage was the practice of veterinary medicine. The president of the MD Vet Board supported and backed up the MD Chiropractic Board view which was a reverse from the 2003 letter. However, the MD Vet Board is not backpedaling and saying they do not have a problem with massage for relaxation.
Court case is still pending.

Definition of Veterinary Medicine: "The science of diagnosing, treating, changing, alleviating, rectifying, curing, or preventing any animal disease, deformity, defect, injury or other physical or mental condition, including, but not limited to, the prescription or administration of any drug, medicine, biologic apparatus, application, anesthesia or other therapeutic or diagnostic substance or technique on any animal, including, but not limited to, acupuncture, dentistry, animal psychology, animal chiropractic, theriogenology, surgery, both general and cosmetic surgery, any manual, mechanical, biological or chemical procedure for testing for pregnancy or for correcting sterility or infertility or to render service or recommendations with regard to any of the procedures in the paragraph."
"Maryland Dept. of Agriculture oversees the practice of veterinary medicine. The Chiropractic Board of Examiners oversees the massage therapy program as it pertains to the human body."

ALLOWED CASE PENDING
No specific wording in state vet practice act although there is a case pending initiated by the State Chiropractic board who governs human massage therapists.

Massachusetts

 

X

 

 

 

 

NOT ALLOWED
No specific wording in state vet practice act however the state boards' interpretation disallowed

Michigan

 

 

 

 

X

 

NO RESPONSE FROM VET BOARD
No specific wording in state vet practice act 

Minnesota

X

 

 

 

 

 

ALLOWED
No specific wording in state vet practice act."

"As long as the individual is not diagnosing, prescribing or offering treatment plans and providing treatment not prescribed by a veterinarian that individual will not be in violation of the Minnesota Practice Act."

Mississippi

 

 

X

 

 

 

ALLOWED WITH DIRECT VET SUPERVISION
Broad wording in state vet practice act however guidelines were provided by the state board

Missouri

 

 

X

 

 

 

ALLOWED WITH DIRECT VET SUPERVISION
No specific wording in state vet practice act however the state boards' interpretation disallowed
Vet board can control who can float horse's teeth.

Montana

X

 

 

 

 

 

ALLOWED
No specific wording in state vet practice act
"Massage for relaxation and general toning is not prohibited by the board. The board does not restrict animal massage to licensed veterinarians."
There are no revisions planned for the practice act.  
Prior ruling which needs investigation: "Equine Massage is considered non-veterinary medicine"

Nebraska

 

 

X

 

 

 

ALLOWED WITH DIRECT VET SUPERVISION
Broad wording in state vet practice act however guidelines were provided by the state board
et Board Response : From Vicki Bumgarnder, April 28, 2003
"Non-veterinarians may practice massage therapy on animals only under the direct supervision of a licensed veterinarian."

Nevada

 

 

 

 

 
X

 

NO RESPONSE FROM VET BOARD
No specific wording in state vet practice act in regards to massage however physical therapy is allowed by "certified(?)" physical therapist  under direct vet supervision.

New Hampshire

X

 

 

 

 

 

ALLOWED
Specific wording in state vet practice act allowing massage

New Jersey

 

 

 

X

 

Clarification on S310 allowing massage has been requested June 13. 2006. Update: bill is in limbo.

GRAY AREA
Broad wording in state vet practice act includes the following terms:
"Alternative or complementary veterinary medicine"

New Mexico

 

 

X

 

 

 

ALLOWED WITH DIRECT VET SUPERVISION
Specific wording in the state practice act:
"Chiropractic, physical therapy, acupuncture, acupressure and embryo transfer under the direct supervision of licensed veterinarian" Response from Vet Board via email January 05
Direct supervision includes the following:
1) The licensed veterinarian must have established a valid veterinarian-client-patient relationship.
2) the treatment must be performed on the order of a veterinarian.
3) the licensed veterinarian must be on the premises and readily available.
4) the licensed veterinarian must assume liability for the quality of any treatment performed.
5) the fee for services rendered shall be paid to the licensed veterinarian or licensed facility.
If you are considering offering equine bodywork you must establish a relationship with a veterinarian and practice under the rules for non-veterinarians.

New York

 

 

 X

 

 

 

Not allowed: Vet Only or Vet Tech with vet supervision
No specific wording in the state practice act however it has been bought to our attention that according the state human massage board, animal massage is allowed to be performed only by vets or vet tech with supervision.

North Carolina

 

 

 

 

General Statute 90-181 state the "practice of veterinary medicine" means:
a. To diagnose, treat, correct, change, relieve, or prevent animal disease, deformities, defect. injury, or other physical or mental conditions; including the prescription or administration of any drug, medicine, biologic, apparatus, application, anesthetic, or other therapeutic or diagnostic substance or techniques on any animal.
b. To represent, directly or indirectly, publicly or privately an ability and willingness to do any act described in sub-subdivision a. of the subdivision
c. To use any title, words, abbreviation, or letter in a manner or under circumstances which induce the belief that the person using them is qualified to do any act described in sub-subdivision a. of the subdivision

 

ALLOWED WITH DIRECT VET SUPERVISION
Broad wording in state vet practice act however guidelines were provided by the state board 

North Dakota

X

 

 

 

 

 

Allowed
Broad wording in state vet practice act however guidelines were provided by the state board
"The practice act is amended by the legislature from time to time.  An amendment dealing with licensure of graduates of non-accredited veterinary colleges was approved by the legislature in this session (2003).  The next legislative session will begin in January 2005.
I am not aware of any plans to address animal massage therapy by the North Dakota legislature.
Massage therapy is one of those things that is hard to classify in the practice act.  North Dakota's definition of the practice of veterinary medicine, like that in most other states, is quite broad, and encompasses anything that includes diagnosis or treatment of physical conditions of animals (N.D. Century Code 43-29-01.1, paragraph 8 ).  The practice act includes an exemption for individuals who are employed by licensed veterinarians, acting under the veterinarian's direction and supervision (NDCC 43-29-13, paragraph 8).
My interpretation is that massage done only to maintain an animal's health and well being probably would not be covered by the veterinary medical practice act and, therefore, would not be considered the practice of veterinary medicine.   Massage done to correct, treat, or relieve a medical condition would be considered the practice of veterinary medicine, and could be done only by a licensed veterinarian or an employee of a licensed veterinarian."

Practice of veterinary medicine means to: "Diagnose, treat, correct, change, relieve, or prevent animal disease, deformity, defect, injury, or other physical or mental conditions. The term includes the prescription of administration of any drug, medicine, biologic, apparatus, application, anesthetic, or other therapeutic or diagnostic substance or technique, the use of any manual or mechanical procedure for testing for pregnancy, or for correction sterility or infertility, or to render advice of recommendation with regard to any of the above."
Exceptions:
§43-29-13 (8) "Any veterinary technician or other employee of a licensed veterinarian performing duties under the direction and supervision of the veterinarian responsible for the technician's or other employee's performance."  

Ohio

 

 

 
X

 

 

 

 ALLOWED WITH DIRECT VET SUPERVISION
Broad wording in state vet practice act however guidelines were provided by the state board 
"The Board is not currently planning any changes to the Practice Act and there are no matters pending regarding animal massage. The Board's position on animal massage of any type is that as long as the person is not diagnosing, prescribing, adjusting or treating a medical condition, it is acceptable."

Oklahoma

X

 

 

 

 

 

allowed WITH VET REFFERAL
Specific wording in the state practice act:
"Individuals certified in animal massage therapy who acquire liability insurance may engage in massage therapy after referral from a licensed veterinarian"
"We do not have any revisions concerning animal massage. We do have a new statute that defines alternative therapies as the practice of Veterinary medicine.
We view massage as the practice of veterinary medicine. A person can be under the direct supervision of a licensed veterinarian. Our Act states that correcting, changing, relieving and animal chiropractic are the practice of veterinary medicine."

Oregon

X

 

 

 

 

 

ALLOWED WITH VET REFERRAL
Specific wording in the state practice act:
 "Allied health professionals upon referral from a licensed veterinarian"

Pennsylvania

 

 

X

 

 

 

ALLOWED WITH DIRECT VET SUPERVISION
Specific wording in the state practice act:
 "Chiropractic, dental, dental hygiene and physical therapy procedures performed upon animals by licensed individuals in conjunction with the practice of veterinary medicine and under the direct supervision of a veterinarian"

Puerto Rico

 

 

 

 

ALLOWED
Guidelines were provided by the state board

Rhode Island

 

 

X

 

 

 

ALLOWED WITH DIRECT VET SUPERVISION
No specific wording in state vet practice act however interpretation was received from the vet board

South Carolina

 

 

 X

 

 

 

Vet may delegate
Specific wording in the state practice act:
 "Veterinarians may delegate the performance of procedures, therapeutic options and alternate therapies, under certain conditions, including
acupuncture, manipulation and adjustment, magnetic field therapy, holistic medicine, homeopathy, herbology/naturopathy, massage, and physical therapy"

South Dakota

X

 

 

 

 

 

Allowed
No specific wording in state vet practice act

Tennessee

X

 

 

 

 

 

Allowed
Broad wording in state vet practice act includes the following terms included as the practice of veterinary medicine:
"All other branches or specialties of veterinary medicine"

Texas

X

 

 

 

 

 

Allowed (may Need Vet Supervision)
November 2008 broad wording in state vet practice act includes the following terms:
"…any other discipline or specialty of veterinary medicine, acupuncture, homeopathy"
Exemptions to the wording in the practice act include:
"Accepted livestock management practices approved by the Board, musculoskeletal manipulation and chiropractic may be practiced under the supervision of a veterinarian"
"At this time, we do not know of any major revisions to our rules or laws, especially as they relate to equine practice … As we view it, massage is acceptable as long as it does not involve diagnosing or treating.  There is a fine line here, but some massage can be interpreted as treatment, and that would be the practice of veterinary medicine which is prohibited to massage practitioners except under the supervision of a veterinarian.  See our rule 573.12 concerning musculoskeletal manipulation.  Our website is www.texasonline.state.tx.us/tbvme."
§573.12 ALTERNATIVE THERAPIES-CHIROPRACTIC AND OTHER FORMS OF MUSCULOSKELETAL MANIPULATION (a) Definition: For the purpose of this rule, animal chiropractic and other forms of musculoskeletal manipulation (MSM) are systems of therapeutic application of mechanical forces applied manually through the hands or any mechanical device to diagnose, treat, and/or alleviate impaired or altered function of related components of the musculoskeletal system of non human animals, Chiropractic and other forms of MSM in non human animals are considered to be alternate therapies in the practice of veterinary medicine.
Chiropractic and other forms of MSM may only be performed by the following:
(1) A licensed veterinarian Chiropractic and (MSM) may be performed by a licensed veterinarian under the following conditions: A-C: protocol
(2) A licensee's employee or an independent contractor, An employee or an independent contractor may perform these procedures on an animal under the direct or general supervision of the licensee if the conditions "A-C" have been met.
(3) An individual to whom the exceptions of Section 3 of the Act apply.

Utah

X

 

 

 

 

 

ALLOWED WITH REFERRAL
Specific wording in the state practice act:
 "Certified massage therapist with veterinary referral"
From Current Vet Practice Act:
§ 58-28-307. Exemptions from chapter
In addition to the exemptions from licensure in Section 58-1-307 this chapter does not apply to:

(1) any person who practices veterinary medicine, surgery, or dentistry upon any animal owned by him, and the employee of that person when the practice is upon an animal owned by his employer, and incidental to his employment, except:

 (c) upon written referral by a licensed veterinarian, the practice of animal massage therapy by a massage therapist licensed under Chapter 47b, Massage Therapy Practice Act, who has completed at least 60 hours of animal massage therapy training, including quadruped anatomy and hands-on training, approved by the division

Laws 2006, c. 109, § 11, eff. May 1, 2006.
Response from Vet Board: 04/21/03 from Daniel T. Jones Bureau Manager for the Utah Vet Licensing Board. "We are not planning on any changes to our Practice Act. The legislature passed the law on Animal Message last year and you can review it on our Web site at www.dopl.utah.gov. Go to law and rule then to Vet. You can find in under the law 58-28-8 (12). The person providing the massage must have certain hours of Training and a referral from a licensed Vet."
Animal Massage - Qualification Requirements
(1) Completed an animal massage course of at least 60 clock hours from a recognized animal massage school.
(2) (a) 24 clock hours of quadruped anatomy, and
  (b) 16 clock hours of classroom study, and
  (c) 20 clock hours of supervised animal massage hands on lab.
  (i) under the direction of a licensed veterinarian
  (ii) under the direction of a licensed massage therapist that has fulfilled
the requirements of section
R156-47b-401-1
(2) An apprentice under a supervisor that has fulfilled the requirements of section R156-47b-401-1

Vermont

 

 

X

 

 

 

ALLOWED WITH DIRECT VET SUPERVISION
No specific wording in state vet practice act however, the state board interpretation offered guidelines
"Currently in Vermont, there are no provisions to allow a person other than a licensed veterinarian to administer treatment or to authorize treatment to animals. The exception is a person treating his or her own animal. A veterinarian may be assisted in the practice of veterinary medicine by a person other than a licensed veterinarian if that person is acting under the veterinarian's direct supervision."

To summarize, only a veterinarian or a person under direct supervision (meaning on the premises) may provide any type of care such as physical therapy, dentistry, herbal, or chiropractics with the exception of an owner working on their own animal. In addition, they issue this statement to other veterinarians:  
" Any veterinarian who aids and abets the unlicensed practice of veterinary medicine may have action taken against her or her license for unprofessional conduct"

Virgin Islands

X

 

 

 

 

 

ALLOWED 

Virginia

 

 

X

 

 

 

ALLOWED WITH DIRECT VET SUPERVISION
No specific wording in state vet practice act however, the state board interpretation offered guidelines:
2009 Change in practice act: Animal massage or physical therapy may be delegated by a veterinarian to persons qualified by training and experience by an order from the veterinarian.

Washington

X

 

 

 

 

 

LMPs and LVTs can provide massage if they meet their practice act requirements.  It is only non-licensed persons who are waiting for the licensing fees to be adopted to be able to practice.  LMPs need 100 hours of training in either small or large animal massage and a state endorsement and can then practice without restriction.  LVTs must have proper training and can only provide massage under indirect supervision of a veterinarian.  Veterinary assistants may also provide massage but must be under direct supervision of a veterinarian.  Non-licensed individuals must complete 300 hours of training in either small or large animal massage and apply for state certification through the Department of Health. The law is on the books, we are just waiting for the state legislature to give DOH permission to adopt fees.  Should happen by March of 2010.

West Virginia

 

 

 

 

X

 

Response from Human Massage Board: From: Julie Parke, Adm. Sect.
WVMTLB April 28, 2003 9:58 AM
"We are not aware of any laws or rules in the State of WV regarding animal massage. Our board does not govern animal massage. The best advice would be to contact the Veterinary Board."

Wisconsin

 

 

X

 

 

 

ALLOWED WITH VET SUPERVISION
No specific wording in state vet practice act however, the state board interpretation offered guidelines

Wyoming

 

 

 

 

X

 

NO RESPONSE FROM VET BOARD 

Thank you, Equinology INC® and Caninology®  for providing this information